Far from being a natural phenomenon, the school and the school systems are social institutions developed at a certain time of history to satisfy concrete needs. School systems are, from their very start, the social device used to distribute “socially valid knowledge“. These systems were organized as part of the emergence of the modernity with the aim to expand a secular worldview in the population in accordance to the development of a society based furthermore in the rational principles of science.
Today we acknowledge the fact that the student is not an object of teachingbut a subject of learning, and we also know that “to teach” is to organize learning experiences for the student to advance in the process of construction of the object of learning. Still, little progress has been made and less has been discussed about the epistemological definitions that should characterize what society defines today a “valid knowledge.”