Category Archives: Learner

Learned helplessness

Learned helplessness is behavior typical of an organism (human or animal) that has endured repeated painful or otherwise aversive stimuli which it was unable to escape or avoid. After such experience, the organism often fails to learn escape or avoidance … Continue reading

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Adult Education – A Critical Realist Orientation to Learner Needs

Is the idea of meeting needs in adult education a myth? Armstrong and Lawy challenge the commonly held notion that needs have an objective reality of their own and suggest that they are instead “manufactured political constructions”. Based on the … Continue reading

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